Psychological Effects of Rape

The force involved in rape does not just cause physical injuries to the victim, but also mental damages that can take a very long time to repair, if they can be repaired at all. Rape is such a serious issue today, because we have seen its physical, emotional, and psychological effects not just to the victim, but to their families and immediate neighborhoods.

Physical injuries can heal, but emotional and psychological damages require a different kind of healing. Below is a list of the most common psychological effects of rape, because knowledge is the first step to cure.

Depression is not just the usual feeling of sadness. The feeling is experienced in a prolonged manner, as if it has become a norm. If a victim does not enjoy the things she has enjoyed in the past anymore, she may be experiencing depression. Other signs of depression include lack of appetite, feeling of hopelessness, loss of self-worth, and withdrawal from social interaction. The most destructive effect of depression is suicidal tendency.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD, or post-traumatic stress disorder, is a psychological condition that can be triggered by terrifying events, such as war and rape. Those who suffer from this condition experience severe anxiety and stress. The condition can have many effects, such as flashbacks and nightmares that are directly related to the event the victim is terrified of.

Substance Abuse
Alcohol, drugs, and other substances that may cause impairment can be abused by rape victims. They do this for a variety of reasons. One, they may be losing their sense of worth and are attempting to destroy themselves. Two, getting impaired is their way of forgetting or coping with the memories of their traumatic experience.

These main psychological effects can also result into other mental problems, such as anger, distrust of others, feeling of vulnerability, guilt, and self-blame. The psychological effects of rape can even warrant the help of medical help.

The effects of rape can be very devastating, but also remember that not all rape allegations turn into convictions, because the law is there to see either side of the story. The help of legal professionals, like Nashville sex crime defense lawyer Brent Horst, might be the very thing you need to defend yourself of unwarranted consequences.

Misdiagnosing the Signs of Stroke: A Possible Cause of Wrongful Death

A 2009 study on stroke cases in young adults showed incidences of misdiagnosis by emergency department medical teams. The study involved the cases of 57 stroke patients, aged 16 to 50, who were rushed to emergency rooms; eight of these patients were incorrectly diagnosed with a range of conditions that included migraine headache, inner ear disorder, vertigo, seizure, and even alcohol intoxication. Of course they were a few hours later correctly diagnosed with a stroke, but only after having been sent home and later rushed back to the hospital, with their condition only having gotten worse.

Records from the American Stroke Association show that the annual number of stroke cases in the U.S. number to around half a million; about 200,000 of these attacks have disabling effects, while one-third is fatal. Stroke is ranked as the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability among Americans. Its typical victims are people aged 55 or older; thus, those under 45 years old who are rushed to hospitals seldom get the correct diagnosis despite a stroke’s revealing symptoms, which include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arms or legs, loss of balance or coordination, dizziness, difficulty speaking, difficulty seeing either from one or both eyes, and severe headache.

A stroke, also called Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA), is a result of the cessation of blood flow to areas of the brain. One of its known causes is blood clot in the blood vessels due to cholesterol plaque. Some patients experience a warning, a mini stroke, known as Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), before having a major or large one; TIA usually lasts for 20 minutes since the flow of blood resumes after an attack.

Recognizing the signs of stroke immediately can prevent the onset of its effects, which include nerve damage, permanent brain damage or, worst, patient death. Thus far, the only government-approved drug treatment for this debilitating or deadly attack is the tissue plasminogen activator, or tPA, which is a clot-busting drug; however, it should be taken by the patient within three hours after symptoms start.

A stroke can permanently alter a person’s (and his/her family’s) life; this is why it’s getting diagnosed early is very critical. Sadly, however, so many individuals are never saved from its effects due to a doctor’s or healthcare provider’s failure to correctly interpret its symptoms, turning a supposedly preventable attack into a painful experience that can lead to disability or wrongful death.

As explained in the website, incorrect diagnosis or misdiagnosis resulting to stroke which, in turn, leads to a patient’s disability or untimely/wrongful death is just one of the many medical errors committed by doctors and other healthcare providers.

The wrongful death of a loved one can be one of the hardest experiences any person can go through in life. The finality of the loss and the knowledge that it could have possibly been prevented can make the trauma of wrongful death harder to bear than virtually anything else. Furthermore, for many families, a wrongful death may mean the loss of an important source of support and income, without which it may be difficult to continue living as before.

There are different factors that can lead to wrongful death. Regardless of its cause, though, the family can pursue legal action against the healthcare provider who has misdiagnosed the condition of the patient to seek compensation for their loss.

Legal Remedies For Defective Products Claims

When a consumer buys a certain product, never did it cross their minds that the item they are buying is defective. When a product does not perform according to their intended use, it could lead to injuries or even death. The website of Habush Habush & Rottier S.C. ® revealed that there has been a spate of fatalities related to defective products. The law gives you the right to file a case and claim compensation due to a defective product.

When it comes to defective products, there are two legal theories that govern such cases:

  • Negligence. A plaintiff can recover compensation if they are able to prove breach of duty on the part of the manufacturer and such action caused injury. Negligence in a defective product claim consists of four elements that should be met to get a successful claim namely :
    • 1) duty;
    • 2) breach;
    • 3) causation; and
    • 4) damages
  • Strict Liability. This theory makes the manufacturer “strictly” liable for the defects during the manufacture stage, regardless of their level of care. This means that proving negligence is not necessary to nail the liability of the manufacturer.

There are three categories of defects that govern defective products: design defects, manufacturing defects, and failure to war23n. In design defects, you need to prove that the product was designed in such a way that it can bring unreasonable danger. In manufacturing defects, you need to show proof that substandard materials were used in the manufacture of the product. Finally, failure to warn involves the manufacturer not warning customers about dangers or side effects.

In a defective products case, you need to prove that such defects lead to your injury. It is not enough to argue that the injury you incurred was caused by using the defective product. Finally, you need to prove that you were using the product according to its intended purpose.

Child Support Issues

According to an article in the Ionia Sentinel-Standard, Thirty-nine-year-old Texas resident James Sink made a guilty plea on Tuesday, March 29 in Ionia County Court in Michigan to not paying child support amounting to $40,625 to an Ionia County woman.

Sink missed his child support obligations from April 2009 to September 2014. He will be facing a nine-month jail sentence if he refuses to pay the woman $500 a month immediately.

Also, 38-year-old actress and real estate investor Brooke Jaye Mueller said that her ex-husband, 50-year-old actor Carlos Irwin Estevez, who is better known as Charlie Sheen, has only paid her $10,563 in child support for the month of March and the same amount for the month of April this year, even though it explicitly says in their 2011 divorce settlement that she would be paid $55,000 per month in child support, as she was allowed by the courts a share of Sheen’s income from the Warner Brothers sitcom he was a part of back then.

Mueller said Sheen owed her $89,000 in back child support payments. They were married for three years before filing a divorce petition. Mueller was granted primary custody of their seven-year-old twin boys named Bob and Max.

However, Sheen has argued that because he is now earning only an average of $87,384 per month, much lower than the $613,421 per month that he received when he was still a cast of the sitcom Two and a Half Men, the changes in the payments are in line with their agreement in the divorce settlement. Furthermore, Sheen in March filed petitions to reduce his child support to Mueller, noting that his income has “changed significantly since the time the judgment entered in 2011” and that he is currently paying for “additional housing expenses” for his children. A child support lawyer website says that sometimes agreements can be adjusted to be more representative of your current financial circumstances.

Sheen is also paying child support to his ex-wife, 45-year-old actress and former fashion model Denise Lee Richards, who is the mother of her daughters, 12-year-old Sam and 10-year-old Lola.

Car Liability Insurance and SR-22

Because of the more than five million car accidents that occur in the US every year, all states, with New Hampshire’s exception, just has required that insurance liability protection is carried out by all drivers. This indebtedness coverage is meant to cover health-related costs for physical injury or repair of damage to homes where the covered motorist is held to be responsible; it is also mandated to ensure safety to others and their properties.
With drunken driving, reckless driving and over-speeding as among the top causes of motor vehicle collisions on U.S. streets, ensuring the protection of potential harmful accidents from the fault of others is only just and appropriate.

Motorists with multiple traffic violations in only one year, who’ve been charged with DUI/DUI or who have no insurance liability coverage (in states where this is required), apart from getting their state-mandated insurance, may also have to get and fill out an SR-22, a file that shows the control of an automobile liability insurance.

It is also a reality, on the other hand, that many times even the irresponsible or careless driver suffers severe harms, incurring major damage to their vehicle as well. For this in particular, the no-problem automobile liability insurance was launched, a type of protection wherein the injured driver’s insurer will cover all his or her injury-related deficits, even when the injury was totally the fault of said driver.

Another amazing thing about no- auto liability insurance is its rates costs are lower compared to at-fault insurance premiums because there is really no longer any need for court proceedings, that is just meant to ascertain who the liable party is in the injury.

Insured under the no-fault insurance are dropped wages due to neglected working times, the cost of health treatment and cost of damage to property; payment to these is called personal injury protection or PIP. The victim possesses the possibility to nevertheless follow additional repayment for damages to the house, but this will have to be done via a lawsuit.

Based on an article posted on the website of Habush Habush & Rottier S.C. ®, an SR-22 is really a type submitted by insurers to some state’s division of Motor Vehicles (DMV) workplace, for the purpose of getting the suspension on the driver license revoked; it is only through the lifting of the suspension may the motorist enjoy his or her driving privileges again.

Uses for Zofran

Zofran, known clinically as Ondansetron, is a widely used drug known to reduce symptoms of nausea and vomiting. While Zofran has been used for a variety of purposes, two main uses of the drug have become most common as the drug has gained prominence in the medical community.

The first use that Zofran became widely known for was to treat symptoms of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. The drug, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, proved very effective at reducing symptoms of nausea and vomiting in the time following and between treatment sessions. Few side effects were initially found with the drug when used for this purpose. The second use that Zofran became widely known for was to treat symptoms of nausea and vomiting in post-operative patients. Nausea and vomiting is a very common symptom patients experience during their recovery from a recent surgery or operation. Zofran’s effects proved very effective at combating these symptoms and it became one of the more widely used drugs for this purpose.

Unfortunately, not all of Zofran’s uses turned out to be clear cut success stories. Some doctors began prescribing Zofran to treat symptoms of nausea and vomiting in women suffering from severe morning sickness. While Zofran did treat those symptoms, many have speculated that side effects of the drug could be harmful to women and their unborn children. According to the website of Williams Kherkher, birth defects such as congenital heart defects, cleft lip, and cleft palate have been linked to the use of Zofran by pregnant women. For this reason, Zofran is not considered a safe drug for the use of by pregnant woman and should not be prescribed for this purpose. If you were prescribed Zofran while pregnant and your child has any of the above birth defects, you may be entitled to certain damages. It is important to talk to your doctor about all potential side effects of a medication before using it.

Gynecomastia: A Case Study

Johnson & Johnson (J&J) is on the hook in a case involving an autistic boy in Philadelphia who developed breasts that any beauty queen would envy. He was prescribed with Risperdal, the brand name for the antipsychotic drug risperidone carried by J&J division Janssen Pharmaceuticals, between 2002 and 2006. The child, Austin Pledger, is now 20 years old. By the time the boy’s parents had succeeded in gaining a trial in civil court, the boy had grown 46 DD breasts. That is a lot of load to carry for someone not physiologically designed to even have breasts.

Risperdal is an atypical antipsychotic, first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of schizophrenia in 1994. The scope of the FDA approval was widened to include short-term treatment of bipolar disorder (2003), and autism for both children and adults with severe and long-term violent behavior (2006). It is the only drug approved to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in juveniles (2007).

Risperdal is generally efficacious in treating these approved disorders. However, the plaintiff alleged that Janssen suppressed information about some of the risks involved in taking the medication. These include gynecomastia, or the abnormal development of breasts in males. The website of the Risperdal lawyers of Williams Kherkher points out young males who grow breasts are likely to feel emotionally and psychologically devastated. Considering that the patients already have mental and behavioral problems, this cannot be helpful.

The jury in this case agreed.

They decided that J&J should pay the family of Austin Pledger the amount $2.5 million for damages. As this is the first Risperdal case alleging J&J’s suppression of known facts about Risperdal and gynecomastia, the verdict is likely to be repeated in other similar cases in the future.

If you or your child suffers from gynecomastia because of Risperdal, you may find similar success in getting compensation. Find experienced Risperdal lawyers in your state to get you started.

Different Types of Birth Injury

One of the most fearful effects of failure to ensure proper child care during pregnancy or medical mistake is birth injury. Birth injury is a cause of trauma to the injured infant’s family and one type of injury that can forever change the life of a child. Thus to avoid the possibility of a birth injury, it is important that physicians make sure that the best care is provided to both the pregnant women and to her child during pregnancy and delivery.

An OB/GYN (Obstetrician / Gynecologist) is responsible in providing the needed care to women during her pregnancy, childbirth and until about six weeks after she delivers her child. Proper care includes regular check-ups to help ensure that the unborn child is not malnourished, deficient in folic acid, underweight and not suffering from any birth defects. Birth defects, like birth injury, are health issues. But while the cause of birth defects can be the unborn child’s DNA or the pregnant woman’s intake of medication, like anti-depressant drugs or birth control pills, birth injury is mainly due to mistakes committed either by the physician in charge or by a member of the medical staff . Being a mistake, birth injuries, therefore, are totally preventable.

Birth injury incidences in the US number to about 28,000 annually. These injuries are usually caused by single mistakes, but which are enough to alter the life of a should-have-been normal child to a child with a disability. The following are the 10 most common reported cases of birth injuries:

  • Cephalohematoma, which is a cranial injury resulting from prolonged labor or use of forceps, vacuum or other birth-assisting tools
  • Brachial Plexus Palsy or Erb’s Palsy, which is paralysis of the arm due to injury to the group of main nerves of the upper arm
  • Cerebral Palsy, a condition marked by spastic paralysis or impaired muscle coordination and/or other disabilities; this condition is typically due to damage to the brain before or during birth
  • Bone Fracture, like fracture to the collar bone or clavicle
  • Caput Succedaneum, the swelling of a newborn ‘s scalp due to long or hard, head-first (vertex) delivery that causes pressure on the uterus or vaginal wall
  • Perinatal Asphyxia, a permanent damage to the brain that is caused by the insufficient supply of oxygen to the newborn
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage, which is hemorrhage inside the skull/cranium
  • Subconjunctival Hemorrhage, or hyposphagma, a condition characterized by bleeding under the conjunctiva (the membrane lining the inside part of the eyelids)
  • Facial Paralysis, a temporary or permanent damage to facial nerves due to lack of control of facial muscles
  • Spinal cord injuries

To protect the life of the child and to help the child’s family afford the costly medical treatments that the injury may require, the law allows the family to take legal actions against the negligent physician, member of the medical staff or the hospital itself, for all the present and future damages resulting from the injury. A skilled accident attorney can help you determine whether or not you have a case.

Dental Fillings

Dental fillings, also known as composite filings, are used to treat a decayed tooth. This is done through a series of steps that start with the removal of the decayed parts of the tooth, then cleaning the damaged area. The final step is filling the area with a filling material suitable for the tooth. A dental filling is very important in order to prevent further decay in the tooth. The materials that will be used will depend on each person, as there is no best dental filling for everyone. As Dr. Sid K. Steadman D.D.S. advises on his website, it would be best to talk with your dentist about the most suitable choice for your dental filling to avoid complications and additional damages to your teeth.

There are factors that your dentist should first take into account before filling the tooth. The location of where the dental filling will be put, certain allergies to materials used, the size of the damage, and the cost of the dental filling. There are a number of choices for dental fillings, namely:

  • Amalgam Fillings – a mixture of silver fillings, they are relatively low-cost and are comparatively resistant to wear. Although they are very durable, they are not as popular because of their dark color which makes them obvious.
  • Porcelain Fillings – also called inlays or outlays, porcelain fillings are custom-made in a lab to be bonded to the tooth. They are custom-made to match the color of the tooth and avoid staining, and can be a more costly option because they cover most of the tooth.
  • Gold Fillings – a costly dental filling, they are made-to-order in the lab to fit the tooth that they will be cemented into. Because they are well-tolerated by gum tissues, many experts recommend and consider gold as the best dental options. Although they are the most costly of the dental fillings, they can last for 20 years.
  • Composite Resins – plastic resins made to match the color of the tooth. It is mixed and applied directly into the tooth where it will harden. They can be cheaper, but are not a good option for large fillings because of their tendency to chip and wear. They are also prone to staining and are not as durable as others mentioned above.

Your dentist will be the one to determine whether you need a dental filing or not, through thorough checkups. They will also advice you on how to properly take care of your dental filling, and prevent future cavities from destroying your teeth. Possible suggestions from your dentist may include healthier eating habits and food choices, practice of proper dental care, and regular dental checkups.

Hot Checks in Texas

There are “hot chicks” in Texas, and then you have “hot checks.” One is good; the other, not so much. A hot check, called a “bad” check in the Texas Penal Code (§32.02 and §32.41) is defined as the issuance of a check by a person who knows that there is not enough funds in the account to pay for it in full. In any circumstance, passing a hot check is a crime, and will be punished accordingly. However, there are two ways that such an offense is addressed under the penal code.

Under §32.41, the offense is considered a Class C misdemeanor (unless it was to pay for child support, in which case it is a more serious charge as a Class B misdemeanor) which carries only a fine and restitution. While this is still bad, but there may be a plausible explanation for the act such as an accounting error which would negate the intent to swindle the payee. Under §32.02, however, it addresses hot checks as theft, and as such can be charged as a Class B misdemeanor (for checks less than $20) all the way up to a first degree felony depending on the face amount of the check and other circumstances. All these charges carry a stint in jail from not more than 180 days to as long as 99 years plus fines.

As mentioned on the website of Inglis Defense, passing a bad check is embarrassing, but it can also mean serious jail time and a hefty fine, not to mention a blot on your criminal record if the case is not handled properly. There are many circumstances that can affect a hot check charge, and few laypersons fully understand the ramifications of playing fast and loose with the Texas Penal Code. If you have already been charged with passing a bad check, you are probably on the brink of having a really bad time. Consult with a hot check defense lawyer to watch out for you and to settle the matter as painfully as possible under the circumstances.